ABSTRACT
OBJECTIVES
ONELINE DIAGRAM OF THE EXISTING POWER SYSTEM
CALCULATION OF USEFUL LOAD
Total connected load in CUET Campus = 1439.02 kW
Therefore,
Useful load = One fourth of the connected load=359.75kW
PERFORMANCE REPORT
We have justified the accuracy of our calculation through the term “Performance Report” of residential areas and entire CUET campus.
POWER FACTOR
Power factor can be improved by 3 methods:
CALCULATION OF POWER FACTOR
From substation we get,
CT ratio =1:120
Power, P =1.7*120 kW=204 kW
Voltage, V = 238*1.732V=412.22 V
Current, I = 3.1*120 A=372A
Therefore,
Power Factor = Power/ (1.732*Voltage*Current) = (204*1000) / (1.732*412.22*372) = 0.768
LOAD CURVES
LOAD DURATION CURVE OF CUET
ANNUAL LOAD CURVE OF CUET AS PER BILL
CALCULATION OF SOME TERMS FROM ANNUAL LOAD CURVE
ANNUAL CONSUMPTION PATTERN OF CUET AS PER BILL (June 2008 –May 2009)
TOTAL CONSUMPTION: 1452100 kWh
STABILITY
Stability is the ability of a system to reach stable condition after being disturbed.
Two types of stability are:
PROPOSED ONELINE DIAGRAM FOR INCREASED LOAD DEMAND AFTER 25 YAERS
Load flow study is essential for a system of multiple load centers. It explains the effects of new loads, new stations, new lines, new. It is especially effective for reliable and continuous safe flow of power. Through this thesis we have tried to evaluate the existing power system in our CUET campus.
Loadflow study
 Analyses system capability to supply the connected load.
 Provides useful information about real and reactive power flow, bus voltages and power factor in each branch of the system.
 Plans the future expansion of power system.
 Determines the best operation of existing system.
 To know the existing campus distribution.
 To know the sources of power in CUET campus.
 To calculate the connected load, bill payable to REB, useful load, power factor then the difference between connected load and actual load as per bill i.e. percentage error.
 To draw the load curves on the basis of yearly load variations.
 To propose some methods for improving the stability of the power system.
 To propose some methods for economic utilization of electric power.
 To have a proposal for an electrical master plan for the next 25 years.
The campus is mainly provided power by Pomra substation of REB. Besides this, there are 3 generators for emergency power supply during load shedding. A manually operated generator of 75 KVA. An autoback up source of 19 kVA. A manually operated generator of 30 KVA.
EXISTING POWER DISTRIBUTION IN CAMPUS
A transformer of 500 kVA in our substation steps down the 11 kVA into 0.415 kV. For future use there is a transformer of 200 kVA. There are 12 circuit breakers to control the power supply in CUET campus. Two of them are Oil Circuit Breaker (OCB) ,one is MCCB and others are MCB. A main MCCB of 800 A controls other circuit breakers.
TRANSMISSION LINES ON THE MAP OF CUET CAMPUS ONELINE DIAGRAM OF THE EXISTING POWER SYSTEM
Existing
Connected Load (in kW)


EME
building

103.79

CE+
CSE building

126.72

Preengineering
building

126.99

Academic
Section

51.38

Workshop

3.22

Library,
Gallery, Medical Center, Post
Office, Bank, Transport Section,
Mosque

42.34

CUET
School & College

9.92

Student
Halls + Extensions

631.44

Residensial
Areas

269.94

Anser
Camp, Guard Sheds, Street Lights & Water Pumps

70.64

Tweleve
stored building(under construction)

2.64

Overall connected load
in CUET Campus

1439.02

CALCULATION OF USEFUL LOAD
Total connected load in CUET Campus = 1439.02 kW
Therefore,
Useful load = One fourth of the connected load=359.75kW
PERFORMANCE REPORT
We have justified the accuracy of our calculation through the term “Performance Report” of residential areas and entire CUET campus.
Overall Performance Report in CUET Campus
 
Types of load

No of load

Calculated Average load

Actual load
(As per bill)kWh

Error
 
Fan

3157

189.42 kW*12hr*0.5*30

34095.6kWh

152400

(154948.26 152400)/152400*100%

Tube

2879

115.16 kW*9hr*0.5*30

15546.6 kWh
 
Bulb

3162(60W)+
18(100W)+
2(400W)+
16(200W)

195.52 kW*9 hr*0.5*30

26395.2 kWh
 
PC

1466

557.08 kW*6 hr*0.5*30

50137.2 kWh
 
AC

33+17

244 kW*4 hr*0.5*30

14640 kWh
 
TV

116

12.53 kW*4 hr*0.5*30

751.68 kWh
 
Fridge

118+7

55.2 kW*10 hr*0.5*30

8280 kWh
 
Water Pump

3

52.22 kW*6 hr*0.5*30

4699.8 kWh
 
Washing machine

21

31.5 kW*0.5 hr*0.25*30

118.13 kWh
 
Photo copy

7

7.56 kW*1 hr*0.5*30

113.4kWh
 
Oven

29

43.5 kW *0.25hr*0.5*30

163.13 kWh
 
Heater

1

2 kW*0.25 hr*0.5*30

7.5 kWh
 
Total

154948.26 kWh

152400

1.7%

Overall Performance Report in CUET Campus (Considering types of use)
 
Building Name

Calculated connected load

Actual load
(As per bill)

Error
 
EME Building

103.79 kW*8hr*0.3*30

7472.9 kWh

152400 kWh

(156715.9 152400)/152400*100%

CE+CSE Building

126.72 kW*8 hr*0.3*30

9123.84 kWh
 
PreEngineering
Building

126.99 kW*8 hr*0.4*30

12191.04 kWh
 
Academic Section

51.38 kW*8 hr*0.5*30

6165.6 kWh
 
Workshop

3.22 kW*1hr*0.5*30

48.3 kWh
 
Library, Gallery, Medical enter, Post Office, Bank, Transport Section, Mosque

42 .34kW*8 hr*0.3*30

3048.48 kWh
 
CUET School &
College

9.92 kW*8 hr*0.3*30

714.24 kWh
 
Student Halls + Extensions

631.44 kW*10hr*0.4*30

75772.8 kWh
 
Residential areas

269.94 kW*10 hr*0.4*30

3092.8 kWh
 
Ansar Camp, Guard Sheds, Street Lights

70.64 kW*6 hr*0.4*30

5086.08 kWh
 
Water Pumps

52..22 kW*6 hr*0.5*30

4699.8 kWh
 
Total

156715.9 kWh

152400 kWh

2.8%

Power factor is the cosine of the angle between voltage and current in an ac circuit. Power consumption depends upon this factor. Low power factor is not expected due to some reasons
 It requires large kVA rating of equipments.
 Greater conductor size is needed.
 It causes large copper losses.
 It provides poor voltage regulation and poor efficiency.
Power factor can be improved by 3 methods:
 Use of static capacitor bank in parallel with the equipment operating at lagging power factor.
 Using synchronous condenser in parallel with the supply.
 Phase advancers can be used to improve power factor of induction motor.
CALCULATION OF POWER FACTOR
From substation we get,
CT ratio =1:120
Power, P =1.7*120 kW=204 kW
Voltage, V = 238*1.732V=412.22 V
Current, I = 3.1*120 A=372A
Therefore,
Power Factor = Power/ (1.732*Voltage*Current) = (204*1000) / (1.732*412.22*372) = 0.768
LOAD CURVES
The curve showing the variation of load on the power station with respect to time is known as a load curve. Now we will represent daily load curve, load duration curve, annual load curve of CUET campus . Here we will also represent the annual consumption pattern of CUET as per bill of the financial year June 2008May 2009.
LOAD CURVE OF CUETLOAD DURATION CURVE OF CUET
ANNUAL LOAD CURVE OF CUET AS PER BILL
CALCULATION OF SOME TERMS FROM ANNUAL LOAD CURVE
· Demand Factor

=

Maximum Demand/Connected Load

=

462.5/1439.02
 
=

0.322
 
· Average Load

=

No. Of units (kWh) generated in a year/8760 hrs

=

{(462.5*24*30) + (172.88*24*31) + (173.06*24*31) + (106.7*24*30) + (142.63*24*31) + (69.33*24*30) + (113.71*24*31) + (78.84*24*31) + (109.82*24*28) + (204.84*24*31) + (189.83*24*30) + (165.64*24*31)}/8760
 
=

1452608.64/8760
 
=

165.82 kW
 
· Load Factor

=

Average Load/Maximum Load

=

165.82/462.5
 
=

0.36

TOTAL CONSUMPTION: 1452100 kWh
STABILITY
Stability is the ability of a system to reach stable condition after being disturbed.
Two types of stability are:
 Transient stability
 Steady state stability
Stability limit is important term which is the maximum power transferred in a network between sources and loads. Transient stability limit is less than steady state stability limit. Methods of improving stability:
 Use of double circuit line
 Use of bundled conductors
 Series compensation of the lines
 Use of parallel feeders.
 Consciousness is required to reduce power loss.
 High load factor is required for better utilization of power.
 Proper time scheduling.
 Using two part tariff.
 By prohibiting the use of heaters in student’s halls.
 Use of compact fluorescent lamp.
 Improving power factor.
Particular Respects

Present status

Status after 25 years

1.No of Departments

4

Near about 12

2.Students Capacity

Near about 1500

4 or 3 times from that of present i.e. about 6000.

3.Teachers Capacity

Near about 100

Almost 3 times from that of present i.e. 300.

4.Other Employees

About 200

About 1000.

5.Connected Load

1439.02 kW

3 times from that of present. i.e., about 4317.06 kW.

6.Transformer Rating

500KVA

Almost 2500 KVA.

The demand of electric power is increasing gradually. To meet up the future requirement of CUET, the infrastructure of electric system has to be improved. Substation capacity, its protection system and distribution system must have to be upgraded.
It is reported from different media that the power generation crisis is greatly affecting our national distribution system. As a result, about 1400 MW load shedding is expecting in the forthcoming summer peak hours which will greatly affect our university students and teachers. To overcome these sorts of problem, establishment of a permanent power supply source in CUET has to be considered. For this purpose, a generating capacity of 2 MW with two units have to be installed in the CUET campus and authority of CUET may please propose to the competent authority for getting approval of the work, otherwise students and teachers of the CUET will have to face a lot of problems in future.
Submitted by JOBEDA JAMAL KHANAM and JOHORA BEGUM in July, 2009